Reactants and products of the citric acid cycle

What are the reactants and end products of cellular respiration?

reactants and products of the citric acid cycle

Reactants & Products and Enzymes


Glucose and oxygen are the reactants and the end products are carbon dioxide and water with the liberation of energy in form of ATP. Cellular respiration occurs in living cells. It provides energy to the cell for carrying out its metabolic activities. Glucose C6H12O6 is the substrate. Cellular respiration occurs in 2 steps: Glycolysis and Kreb's cycle or Citric acid cycle.

In prokaryotic cells, the citric acid cycle occurs in the cytoplasm; in eukaryotic cells the citric acid cycle takes place in the matrix of the mitochondria.
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If oxygen is available, aerobic respiration will go forward. In eukaryotic cells, the pyruvate molecules produced at the end of glycolysis are transported into the mitochondria, which are the sites of cellular respiration. There, pyruvate is transformed into an acetyl group that will be picked up and activated by a carrier compound called coenzyme A CoA. The resulting compound is called acetyl CoA. CoA is derived from vitamin B5, pantothenic acid.

Biochemistry : Reactants and Products of the Citric Acid Cycle

The citric acid cycle

Like the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl CoA, the citric acid cycle takes place in the matrix of mitochondria. Almost all of the enzymes of the citric acid cycle are soluble, with the single exception of the enzyme succinate dehydrogenase, which is embedded in the inner membrane of the mitochondrion. Unlike glycolysis, the citric acid cycle is a closed loop: The last part of the pathway regenerates the compound used in the first step. This is considered an aerobic pathway because the NADH and FADH 2 produced must transfer their electrons to the next pathway in the system, which will use oxygen. If this transfer does not occur, the oxidation steps of the citric acid cycle also do not occur.

In order for pyruvate, the product of glycolysis, to enter the next pathway, it must undergo several changes to become acetyl Coenzyme A acetyl CoA. Acetyl CoA is a molecule that is further converted to oxaloacetate, which enters the citric acid cycle Krebs cycle. The conversion of pyruvate to acetyl CoA is a three-step process. Breakdown of Pyruvate : Each pyruvate molecule loses a carboxylic group in the form of carbon dioxide. Step 1. A carboxyl group is removed from pyruvate, releasing a molecule of carbon dioxide into the surrounding medium. Note: carbon dioxide is one carbon attached to two oxygen atoms and is one of the major end products of cellular respiration.

18.3C: Citric Acid (Krebs) Cycle

Following glycolysis, the mechanism of cellular respiration involves another multi-step processthe Krebs cycle, which is also called the citric acid cycle or the tricarboxylic acid cycle. The Krebs cycle occurs in the mitochondrion of a cell see Figure This sausage-shaped organelle possesses inner and outer membranes and, therefore, inner and outer compartments. The inner membrane is folded over itself many times; the folds are called cristae. They are somewhat similar to the thylakoid membranes in chloroplasts see Chapter 5. Located along the cristae are the important enzymes necessary for the proton pump and for ATP production. Prior to entering the Krebs cycle, the pyruvic acid molecules are altered.

Flavin mononucleotide FMN is not produced by the citric acid cycle. The rest of the answer choices are products of the citric acid cycle otherwise known as the Krebs cycle. Pyruvate is the end product of glycolysis. This is carried out by a combination of three enzymes collectively known as the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. The conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA also produces one molecule of.

The Krebs cycle, named after Nobel Prize winner and physiologist Hans Krebs, is a series of metabolic reactions that take place in the mitochondria of eukaryotic cells. Put more simply, this means that bacteria do not have the cellular machinery for the Krebs cycle, so it limited to plants, animals and fungi. Glucose is the molecule that is ultimately metabolized by living things to derive energy, in the form of adenosine triphosphate, or ATP. Glucose can be stored in the body in numerous forms; glycogen is little more than a long chain of glucose molecules that is stored in muscle and liver cells, while dietary carbohydrates, proteins and fats have components that can be metabolized to glucose as well. When a molecule of glucose enters a cell, it is broken down in the cytoplasm into pyruvate. What happens next depends on whether the pyruvate enters the aerobic respiration path the usual result or the lactate fermentation path used in bouts of high-intensity exercise or oxygen deprivation before it ultimately allows for ATP production and the release of carbon dioxide CO 2 and water H 2 O as by-products.


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